**Defects per Opportunity** is the probability of units produced with zero defects by the process. One part or unit may have as low as one opportunity for a defect or it may have infinite opportunities for defects.

A complex stamping for an airplane fuselage may have hundreds of characteristics that can each be defective. A simpler product such as nail will have fewer opportunities. Measurable opportunities are considered.

**Given:**

D: # of defects

O: # of opportunities for a defect

U: # of units

TOP: Total number of opportunities = U * O

**Formula:**

Examine the table shown below:

D = 19 defects

O = 5 opportunities

U = 10 nails

TOP = 50 total opportunities

DPU = 1.9 defects per unit

**DPO = 0.38 defects per opportunity.**

Each opportunity (length, diameter, plating, hardness, material) has an average of 0.38 defects in each nail.

**Additional Note:**

Notice below that only 2 nails of the 10 total nails were completely defect-free and 8 of the nails were defective....meaning that each of the 8 nails had at least one type of defect. That means the PPM is 8/10 or 800,000.

DPMO and PPM can be different values. Click here to learn more.

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