The following are a brief list of generally accepted destructive and nondestructive testing methods.
The word "Destructive" refers to testing methods which the parts is destructed and irreversibly damaged during the test or the assessment. And "Nondestructive" refers to the opposite where the test or assessment does not destroy the part.
There's a strong likelihood this topic will be covered on a Green Belt and Black Belt certification exam.
Hot Yield Test
Pelling Drop Weight Testing
Ferrite and phase count
Charpy Impact Test
Corrosion test such as salt spray
Neutron Radiographic Testing
Templates, Table, and Calculators
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Templates, Tables & Calculators
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Green Belt Program (1,000+ Slides)
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Central Limit Theorem
MTBF and MTTR
... and more