# Defects per Opportunity (DPO)

Defects per Opportunity is the probability of units produced with zero defects by the process. One part or unit may have as low as one opportunity for a defect or it may have infinite opportunities for defects.

A complex stamping for an airplane fuselage may have hundreds of characteristics that can each be defective. A simpler product such as nail will have fewer opportunities. Measurable opportunities are considered.

Given:

D: # of defects

O: # of opportunities for a defect

U: # of units

TOP: Total number of opportunities = U * O

Formula:

Examine the table shown below:

D = 19 defects

O = 5 opportunities

U = 10 nails

TOP = 50 total opportunities

DPU = 1.9 defects per unit

DPO = 0.38 defects per opportunity.

Each opportunity (length, diameter, plating, hardness, material) has an average of 0.38 defects in each nail.

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